The Latitude Hook, Kamal
The Polynesian Latitude Hook is one of the simplest methods of measuring the altitude and it is done only using a piece of wood and a tiny rope. The observer maintains roughly the same latitude by pulling the rope, until the wooden piece fills his field of vision from the horizon up to the North Star.
The Arabian Kamal works by a similar mechanism. A rectangular piece of wood is measured to fit the distance of the star from the horizon. A knotted string is attached and this is to be held in the teeth to ensure a fixed distance.
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